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8.3 Types of geothermal energy use

Chapter Concepts

Properties energy type
Keywords Three Gorges project; biomass; carbon-based transportation fuel; geothermal energy; heat pump; high pressure power plant; hydroelectric power; hydrogen production; renewable energy; renewable fuel; solar power; wind energy conversion
Main Subjects Geothermal energy - Types of geothermal energy use
Secondary Subjects Commercial and industrial applications; Deep borehole heat exchangers; Direct use; Earth coupled heat extraction systems; Heat exchanger piles; Horizontal Earth coupled heat exchangers; Hydrothermal heating systems; Power generation; Shallow borehole heat exchangers; Space heating; Types of geothermal energy use

Table of Contents:

  • Types of geothermal energy use
    • Direct use
      • Space heating
        • Earth coupled heat extraction systems
          • Horizontal Earth coupled heat exchangers
          • Shallow borehole heat exchangers
          • Heat exchanger piles
          • Deep borehole heat exchangers
        • Hydrothermal heating systems
      • Commercial and industrial applications
    • Power generation
    • References for 8.3

Source

Title

8.3 Types of geothermal energy use

In

8 Geothermal energy

Author C. Clauser
Affiliation
Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Geologie, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany
Part of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII Advanced Materials and Technologies
Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology
Volume

3C: Renewable Energy

Edited by K. Heinloth
Chapter-DOI 10.1007/10858992_19
Book-DOI 10.1007/b83039 (Volume in Bookshelf)

Cite as

RIS-Export Clauser, C.: 8.3 Types of geothermal energy use. Heinloth, K. (ed.). SpringerMaterials - The Landolt-Börnstein Database (http://www.springermaterials.com). DOI: 10.1007/10858992_19

Abstract

8.3 Types of geothermal energy use in '8 Geothermal energy', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII Advanced Materials and Technologies: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 3C: Renewable Energy'.
This chapter describes different types of geothermal energy use. The geothermal energy can be used directly, i.e. without any further conversion, as heat. The direct application of geothermal heat is referred to as direct use. In direct use, geothermal energy is employed directly as heat without further conversion in other types of energy. In moderate and cold climates, most of the national final energy is consumed as heat. As an example, it is found in Germany in the year 2002, about 58% of the national final energy was consumed for space heating, process heat, and hot water. There is a variety of different Earth coupled heat extraction systems. Horizontal Earth coupled heat exchangers are pipe systems buried in the ground below the freezing depth. Shallow borehole heat exchangers commonly consist of one or several U-pipes installed and backfilled in a borehole, the most frequent configuration consisting of two U-pipes arranged at an angle of 90°. Heat exchanger pipe systems integrated directly into the concrete foundations of buildings and other constructions for heating and cooling. Deep borehole heat exchangers have been installed to depths of about 1500 m - 3000 m. Hydrothermal heating systems consist of one or several, usually deep, boreholes for producing water from aquifers or deep reservoirs. Commercial and industrial applications of direct use geothermal energy are illustrated. Geothermal power generation requires vapor to drive turbines. It can be derived as either wet or dry steam from natural reservoirs.